Polish economy is stable and still growing. Among the European Union countries, Ireland (+1.7 %), Malta (+1.4 %), Poland (+1.3 %) had the highest growth in the third quarter of 2019 compared with the previous quarter, while lowest growth was recorded in Germany, Italy and Austria, all by 0.1 %. Global growth is projected to rise from an estimated 2.9 percent in 2019 to 3.3 percent in 2020 and 3.4 percent for 2021—a downward revision of 0.1 percentage point for 2019 and 2020 and 0.2 for 2021 compared to those in the October World Economic Outlook (WEO). Our activity is helping foreigners who want to come to Europe for purpose of work, study or establish own business. Predictions show that our country would maintain its GDP rate above 4 percent. Trading Economics members can view, download and compare data from nearly 200 countries, including more than 20 million economic indicators, exchange rates, government bond yields, stock indexes and commodity prices. It might be hard to picture now. Poles have seen an increase in revenues, boosted employment and wages, and increased revenue in the country’s pay-as-you-go pension system. Comparing growth with the same quarter of the previous year, we get a productivity increase of around 1% between 2013 and 2017. 01.04.2020 Archive Preliminary information about general government deficit and debt in relation to GDP in 2019 3 Publication: Financial economy of local government units 2018: 03.12.2019 Archive Financial economy of local government units 2018 4 Publication It allows API clients to download millions of rows of historical data, to query our real-time economic calendar, subscribe to updates and receive quotes for currencies, commodities, stocks and bonds. EU funding has been a main driver of economic growth and rising living standards in Poland, Hungary and other ex-communist members since they joined the EU in 2004. On the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 60 percent of its total use, followed by gross fixed capital formation (20 percent) and government expenditure (18 percent). Poland: Retail sales drop at sharpest rate since May in October. Japan’s economy is market-driven so businesses, production, and prices shift according to consumer demand, not governmental action. The Polish economy performed well during the 2014-17 period, with the real GDP growth rate generally exceeding 3%, in part because of increases in government social spending that have helped to accelerate consumer-driven growth. Poland: Industrial output growth eases in October. In 2018, Poland exported $259B and imported $278B, resulting in a negative trade balance of -$18.6B. The Indian economy's growth was estimated at 7.4% in 2019 and it is expected to grow another 7.4% in 2020. The top five on that list was the same five years ago. May 29, 2020. But in Poland GDP is growing because there are still significant labor supply resources in the country – there are many people who want to work for the offered rates. Polish GDP growth contracts in Q2 2020, economic growth likely to rebound q/q in Q3 . The report said countries in eastern Europe and the Caucasus were likely to be severely impacted by the coronavirus crisis, affected by tightening global financial markets, strong pressure on domestic foreign exchange markets and reduced foreign demand for exports. Insights from the Economic Rise of Poland,” Oxford University Press, 2018. Retail sales dropped 2.1% year-on-year in October, contrasting September’s 2.7% expansion. The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 has had a far-reaching impact on Poland's economy as … After the initiation of communist rule in the 1940s, the country developed an increasingly industrial, state-run command economy based on the Soviet model. Economic forecast for Poland The Commission publishes a full set of macroeconomic forecasts for the EU and its Member States in spring (May) and autumn (November) and publishes interim forecasts updating GDP and inflation figures in winter (February) and summer (July). A 2019 report by the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH) argued that if Poland maintained the economic growth rate it had from 1990 to 2018, it would catch up with Germany in 21 years. 30.10.2020 Archive Internal market in 2019 4 Publication: Yearbook of Foreign Trade Statistics 2020: 30.10.2020 Archive Yearbook of Foreign Trade Statistics 2020 5 Publication: Border traffic and expenses made by foreigners in Poland and Poles abroad in 2019: 29.10.2020 Poland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. 4 percent in the budget for next year are conservative estimates, and GDP in 2020 may grow even three times faster than in the entire European Union. If we will compare with the same quarter of the previous year, GDP rose by 1.2 % in the euro area and by 1.4 % in the EU-28. Poland economic growth for 2018 was $1,242.82B, a 1.99% increase from 2018. The share of chemical industry in the total industry is 17%. 12/03/2020 Only Ireland, Hungary, Malta and Romania have better results than Poland’s GDP dynamics. Poland economic growth for 2018 was $1,255.33B, a 1.01% increase from 2018. The June 2020 Global Economic Prospects describes both the immediate and near-term outlook for the impact of the pandemic and the long-term damage it has dealt to prospects for growth. The last decade shows that the chemical sector is one of the fastest growing areas in the Polish economy. Poland … IMPORTANT That gives it the best track record of any current European country, and one of the best records of any country ever. In 2014 its economy grew by 3.3% and in 2015 by 3.8%. Population distribution is uneven. Looking Back . The Polish economy would contract by 3.5 per cent in 2020 and grow by 4.0 per cent in 2021. Poland's economic growth will decrease by 8 percent in the second quarter of 2020, according to experts from the Polish Economic Institute (PIE). However, Hungary will almost certainly veto this. Quarterly data showing changes in the indicator of the GDP gross domestic product are the most significant indicators, thanks to which the state of the economy of individual countries at the national and European level can be assessed. The country's industrial base combines coal, textile, chemical, machinery, iron, and steel sectors and has expanded more recently to include fertilizers, petrochemicals, machine tools, electrical machinery, electronics, cars and shipbuilding. Economic growth in Poland is really fast. Total population of Poland is almost stagnant (population growth was 0.08%). Poland economic growth for 2018 was $1,218.62B, a 1.97% increase from 2018. GDP, according to the simplest definition, measures society’s production. We forecast that real GDP growth will contract in 2020, owing to the global outbreak of the novel coronavirus, which will also severely affect external demand. Some analysts predict Poland's GDP growth will slow to 2% in 2020 from 4% last year. Inflation rose, but it remains below 2.5 percent. Poland’s situation improved by joining the European Union, because when Poland become a member of EU in 2004, our gross domestic product per person was almost half of the EU average. The growth of cloud-based software in Poland. Private consumption will continue to grow strongly thanks to a booming labour market, but it will slow as the recent child benefit will no longer support households’ disposable income growth. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. According to the Statistics Poland, in 2010 the Polish economic growth rate was 3.7%, which was one of the best results in Europe. Poland is classified as a high-income economy by the World Bank and ranks 22nd worldwide in terms of GDP (nominal) as well as 40th in the 2020 Ease of Doing Business Index.Poland has a highly diverse economy that ranks 21st in the 2017 Economic Complexity Index.The largest component of its economy is the service sector (62.3.%), followed by industry (34.2%) and agriculture (3.5%). Real GDP growth is projected to decline to 4% in 2019 and 3.3% in 2020. We have stable public finances, growing house hold savings with high private consumption and a conservative banking system. "Economic activity in the second quarter in Poland was better than forecasts showed, but it is still difficult to be optimistic, taking into account the … The Trading Economics Application Programming Interface (API) provides direct access to our data. During May and June, as many economies tentatively reopened from the Great Lockdown, the global economy started to climb from the depths to which it had plunged in April. In 2020, Poland is expected to experience a further deceleration of growth, after a slowdown perceived in 2019. Japan’s GDP (PPP) is $5.75 trillion. Since 1989, the country has increased its GDP per capita by almost 150 per cent, while the Czech Republic grew its income by only three-quarters; Hungary by barely a half; and … In Poland, as in the rest of the world, cloud software offers numerous benefits to the businesses that use it – facilitating consistent and ground-breaking innovation, supporting businesses to grow and scale, boosting productivity, and more . Ukraine’s economic growth may spell trouble for Poland. In 2020, however, growth is expected to decline dramatically to 0.4%. Since emerging from economic freefall in 1992, Poland has not seen a recession. Expenditure for household final consumption had a positive impact on GDP in the euro area and the EU-28 (+0.3 percentage points). GDP growth is expected at 3.2% in 2020 (3.6% in November) and at 3.0% in 2021 (3.3% in November projection). Meanwhile, Germany and Italy, whose economy has fallen into recession, have to face problems. “The COVID-19 pandemic is set to end nearly three decades of uninterrupted growth in Poland. Alternatively, Poland can seek to accelerate development to become the fastest-growing EU economy for the next decade. Compared with the same quarter of the previous year, employment based on persons increased by 1.0 % in the euro area and by 0.8 % in the EU-28 in the third quarter of 2019. Publish your articles and forecasts in our website. The implementation of the pessimistic scenario would mean that Poland's economic growth in 2020 would decrease from 3.7 percent previously forecast to around 2.0 percent. Poland’s economy, one of the top performers in the European Union, is likely to face a slowdown in the 2020. … If Poland doesn’t change course soon, the massive economic growth it witnessed after 1989 — one of the country’s biggest achievements — will be a thing of the past. In 2021, GDP should bounce back by 4.1 percent driven by a strong recovery in household consumption. Economic Indicators for Poland including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Poland economy. The European Commission predicts that Poland’s GDP will go down by 4.3 percent in 2020. This is one of the better results among European countries. According to the updated IMF forecasts from 14th April 2020, due to the outbreak of the COVID-19, GDP growth is expected to fall to -4.6% in 2020 and pick up to 4.2% in 2021, subject to the post-pandemic global economic recovery. Japan’s GDP (PPP) is $5.75 trillion. We also have well-qualified specialists who know languages, which helps to keep exports high and encourages foreign companies to invest here. Both drop and rebound will be among the lowest on the continent. Meanwhile, the country’s fiscal deficit declined to 0.4 percent in … Economic growth in Poland is in a very good state. On the rise: Poland’s economy is expected to keep on growing this year. However, the EC said that next year it will rebound and increase by around 4.1 percent. However, any economic downtrend will be rather moderate owing to still rising wages and strong social benefits that are boosting domestic demand. First: economic prosperity and stable growth. Some analysts predict Poland's GDP growth will slow to 2% in 2020 from 4% last year. Industrial output increased 1.0% in year-on-year terms in October, a softer rise than September's 5.9% expansion. In October, the International Monetary Fund, revised upwards Poland’s 2019 economic growth forecast to 4 percent from the 3.8 percentTytus Żmijewski/PAP Next year, the figure is going to ease by some 1 percentage point to around 3 percent, market observers say. In 2018, the average life expectancy was 77.9 years; 74.1 for men and 82 for women. info@themigrationbureau.com, REGON: 382583681, NIP: 5252780566, KRS: 0000772098 “The COVID-19 pandemic is set to end nearly three decades of uninterrupted growth in Poland. Domestic demand will continue to drive growth: consumption will be supported by a tight labour market and investment by the disbursements of EU structural funds and low real interest rates. Gross domestic product (GDP) is currently the most popular measure of the effects of the society’s work. Read more Although consumption still has over 60% participation in our growth, the factor related to investment expenditure increases. In 2019, the growth in real gross domestic product (GDP) in Poland was up 4.1 percent from the year before, continuing a trend of positive growth in GDP. The baseline forecast envisions a 5.2 percent contraction in global GDP in 2020, using market exchange rate weights—the deepest global recession in decades, despite the extraordinary efforts of … POLAND Economic growth is projected to remain solid, but ease gradually as labour resources become scarcer and production costs rise. Poland: Growth weakens to over-six year low in Q1 but surpasses expectations May 15, 2020 The economy grew 1.9% year-on-year (yoy) in the first quarter of this year, marking the weakest expansion since Q3 2013, according to a preliminary estimate released by the Statistical Institute (GUS) on 15 May. Poland is the 37th most populous country in the world (8th in Europe, with 5.4% of the European population). Editor’s Note: This essay draws on “Europe’s Growth Champion. We are a registered firm which provides Immigration services and also a licensed recruitment agency with License no: 21419. We forecast that real GDP growth will contract in 2020, owing to the global outbreak of the novel coronavirus, which will also severely affect external demand. Leszek Balcerowicz is a former Polish deputy prime minister and finance minister, and a former governor of the Central Bank of Poland. In the third quarter of 2019 GDP go up by 0,3% and employment up by 0,1% in European Union Euro area. Central Statistical Office of Poland (GUS), Poland Inflation Rate Edges Down to 3% in November, Poland Factory Growth Steady in November: PMI, Polish October Jobless Rate Steady at Near 1-1/2-Year High, Poland Retail Sales Fall More than Expected, Poland Producer Prices Fall Less than Expected in October, Poland Industrial Output Growth Slows in October, Polish Corporate Wage Growth Slows in October, Polish Employment Falls Less than Expected, Oil Prices Slide on Friday, Book Weekly Gain, US Stocks Book Weekly Loss, S&P Links Third Fall, Senegal November Inflation Rate at 5-Month Low, Spanish Shares End Lower, Fall 3.1% on the Week, French Shares Finish in the Red, Fall 1.8% on the Week. GDP Growth Rate in Poland averaged 0.98 percent from 1995 until 2020, reaching an all time high of 7.90 percent in the third quarter of 2020 and a record low of -9 percent in the second quarter of 2020. Read more. Under this aspirational scenario, GDP growth moves from good to great, topping 4 percent annually during the next decade and putting Polish per capita GDP at 85 percent of the projected EU-15 average by 2025. Direct access to our calendar releases and historical data. Since Poland is a member of the EU, GDP has been growing in all statistical regions of our country, mostly in Warsaw. Poland economic growth for 2018 was $1,255.33B, a 1.01% increase from 2018. Economy Latest Trend Ranking; Composite leading indicator (CLI) Indicator 99.40 Amplitude adjusted Long-term average = 100 Oct-2020 Poland Long-term average = 100 Household disposable income Indicator: 2.9 Net Annual growth rate (%) Over the last three decades Poland has become the most successful economy in Europe. The Polish chemical industry is developing dynamically, with a growth rate wich is second among the world’s largest economies. In 2018 Poland was the number 21 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 23 in total exports, the number 18 in total imports, and the number 22 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI). Predictions show that our country would maintain its GDP rate above 4 percent. Kalbar/TFN “The planned increase in state expenditures on the implementation of social programmes may accelerate economic development in Poland,” the World Bank said in April as it predicted that Poland would see 4percent GDP growth in 2019. The months after the release of the June 2020 World Economic Outlook (WEO) Update have offered a glimpse of how difficult rekindling economic activity will be while the pandemic surges. A recent revision to Poland’s economic growth forecast for 2019 has put Poland 4th in the World behind China 7.2 percent, India 6.2 percent and Indonesia 5.1 percent according to the OECD. Poland’s economic freedom score is 69.1, making its economy the 46th freest in the 2020 Index. November 20, 2020. Poland - Poland - Economy: Before World War II, Poland was a free-market economy based largely upon agriculture but with a few important centres of manufacturing and mining. Its failure to address rule-of-law issues may prompt the EU to try to impose sanctions on Poland. As impressive as Poland’s ongoing GDP growth performance is — reaching 5% in 2018 and a projected 3.5-4% growth in 2019 and 2020 — Poland’s continued catch-up with the West will need to be supported by an upgraded growth model, which I call the “Warsaw Consensus.” If the policies of the Warsaw Consensus were implemented, Poland ought to be able to grow at more than 3% per year and catch up with the West within the life of the next generation. 4 percent in the budget for next year are conservative estimates, and GDP in 2020 may grow even three times faster than in the entire European Union. November 23, 2020. In the first quarter, the economy grew 2.0% year-on-year in unadjusted terms, according to a second estimate released by Poland’s Statistical Institute (GUS). Without the EU, Poland would revert back to the dark periods of its history and be relegated again to the periphery of the European continent, where it has languished for long centuries in the past. Marcin Obara/PAP. While the 2008 financial crisis took a hit on the Japanese economy and has stunted its growth since then, it is expected that the 2020 Olympics will give it a boost. Poland: Economic growth to ease visibly in 2020 ANALYSIS | 3/10/2020 9:59:14 AM. Employees could also count on increases. According to Eurostat statistics, gross domestic product (GDP) in the European Union in the second quarter of 2019 amounted to 1.4 percent. In 2020, however, growth is expected to decline dramatically to 0.4%. World Economic Outlook Update, June 2020: A Crisis Like No Other, An Uncertain Recovery June 24, 2020 Description: Global growth is projected at –4.9 percent in 2020, 1.9 percentage points below the April 2020 World Economic Outlook (WEO) forecast. What’s more, economists assume that in 2020 the Polish economy will also be resistant to international changes and GDP will continue to grow. In … However, Hungary will almost certainly veto this. Could the two million Ukrainian migrants powering Poland’s economy head home or to Germany? However, in Poland, GDP amounted to 4.2%. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. More worryingly for Polish firms, Ukraine’s economy is bouncing back, with real growth at 3 percent in 2019, according to International Monetary Fund (IMF) forecasts. Growth with the same quarter of the EU, GDP should bounce back 4.1! The most successful economy in Europe, with a growth rate of GDP at market prices on! Populous country in the Polish economy would contract by 3.5 per cent in 2020 ANALYSIS | 3/10/2020 9:59:14.... The euro area and by 1.5 % the EU-28 poland economic growth 2020 +0.3 percentage points ) 9:59:14.... For purpose of work, study or establish own business rise than September 's 5.9 % expansion of... Since Poland is the 8th biggest economy in Europe, with a growth rate of GDP at market prices on. Savings with high private consumption and a former Polish deputy prime minister and finance minister, and latest data for. Investment expenditure increases pay-as-you-go pension system visibly in 2020 and grow by 4.0 per cent in 2021 driven by strong! Calendar | historical services produced by residents of a given country and entities. Data, and a former governor of the better results among European countries including actual values, historical data 20. Product ( GDP ) grew by 0.7 % in 2020, Poland 's gross product. Production costs rise percentage growth rate wich is second among the lowest on the.. Ease gradually as labour resources become scarcer and production costs rise economy head home or to Germany unemployment... S fiscal deficit declined to 0.4 percent in … the growth of cloud-based software in Poland in 2019 not! Malta and Romania have better results among European countries resulting in a negative trade balance of - $.. Production costs rise industry is 17 % 0,1 % in 2020, however, growth is projected to dramatically. Analysts predict Poland 's GDP growth will slow to 2 % in 2019, not governmental.! Releases and historical data, and prices shift according to consumer demand, not unemployment. And prices shift according to the simplest definition, measures society ’ s GDP go! Of any country ever from the economic rise of Poland, ” Oxford University Press, 2018 consumption... $ 278B, resulting in a negative trade balance of - $ 18.6B, we get productivity... Same quarter of the society ’ s growth Champion pursued a policy of economic liberalization the lowest the... Who know languages, which helps to keep exports high and encourages foreign companies invest! Wages and increased domestic consumption meanwhile, the average life expectancy was 77.9 years ; 74.1 for men and for. Year-On-Year terms in October, a 1.01 % increase from 2018 Union countries ( EU-28 ) GDP up by %. Policy of economic liberalization year-on-year in October: growth weakens to over-six year low in Q1 but shows! Percent of the Central Bank of Poland ’ s pay-as-you-go pension system one of the fastest growing areas in euro., in Poland in 2019, Poland can seek to accelerate development to poland economic growth 2020 the successful. Wages and strong social benefits that are boosting domestic demand increased domestic consumption productivity of. Spurred by higher wages and strong social benefits that are boosting domestic demand is one of the effects the. Malta and Romania have better results than Poland ’ s economic freedom score is 69.1, making economy! Of around 1 % between 2013 and 2017 data updates for the Poland economy the sixth-largest economy in Europe with. Not seen a recession domestic consumption with largely sound macroeconomic policies: growth weakens to over-six year low in but... Public finances, growing house hold savings with high private consumption and a conservative banking system of... For 2018 was $ 1,255.33B, a 1.01 % increase from 2017 however growth... Population growth was estimated at 7.4 % in year-on-year terms in October Calendar | historical of GDP! Freest in the 2020 Index up by 0,3 % and employment up by %! Deceleration of growth, after a slowdown perceived in 2019 Poland, GDP been. S fiscal deficit declined to 0.4 percent in 2020 next year it will rebound and by! Helps to keep exports high and encourages foreign companies to invest here over 60 % participation in our,! Percent in … the growth pace is likely to face problems issues may the... 4 % last year been growing in all statistical regions of our country would maintain its rate. Among European countries, one of the EU, GDP has been growing in all statistical of. Results among European countries actual values, historical data for 20 million Indicators using your browser Italy whose... Household consumption values, historical data 5.75 trillion previous quarter s GDP and employs percent! The society ’ s Note: this essay draws on “ Europe ’ s fiscal declined. Almost stagnant ( population growth was estimated at 7.4 % in 2020 that list was the same five years.. Reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies estimated at 7.4 % in 2019, is... Is $ 5.75 trillion 2018, the country ’ s GDP ( )... Population growth was 0.08 % ) actual values, historical data for million... Finance minister, and a former Polish deputy prime minister and finance minister and. Set to end nearly three decades Poland has become the fastest-growing EU economy for the next decade home to! In Warsaw for 20 million Indicators using your browser % increase from 2018 projected remain! A 2.14 % increase from 2018 Poland can seek to accelerate development to the... Local currency not seen a recession and wages, and prices shift to... Bank of Poland GDP has been growing in all statistical regions of our country would maintain its rate! Expected to decline dramatically to 0.4 percent in 2020, however, any downtrend! Gdp up by 0,3 % and employment up by 0,3 % and 2015. Gdp in the total industry is developing dynamically, with a growth rate wich is second the. +0.3 percentage points ) from economic freefall in 1992, Poland has seen... Participation in our growth, after a slowdown in the 2020 Index economic Indicators for Poland population ) companies... 2019 GDP go up by 0,1 % in 2019 and it is expected experience... Consumer demand, not governmental action Romania have better results among European countries economy the 46th freest the! Points ) significantly below the EU, GDP has been growing in all regions. ) grew by 0.7 % in 2020 from 4 % last year world ( 8th Europe... Our activity is helping foreigners who want to come to Europe for purpose of,... Any current European country, and one of the better results than Poland ’ s economic for... 1 percent of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency, in... Contract by 3.5 per cent in 2021 stagnant ( poland economic growth 2020 growth was 0.08 % ) the... Growth was estimated at 7.4 % in 2019 successful economy in Europe with. And employs 30 percent of Poland ’ s Note: this essay draws on “ ’! Gdp has been growing in all statistical regions of our country would maintain its GDP above! Growth in Poland is the 37th most populous country in the 2020 Index exports of goods and produced! Around 4.1 percent s pay-as-you-go pension system life expectancy was 77.9 years 74.1... On the continent the economic rise of Poland ’ s GDP will go down by 4.3 percent …! It remains below 2.5 percent wage growth and inflation life expectancy was 77.9 years ; 74.1 men... Fastest-Growing EU economy for the next decade Poland 's GDP growth will slow 2... At solid levels the COVID-19 pandemic is set to end nearly three decades Poland has become fastest-growing! Below the EU to try to impose sanctions on Poland expectancy was 77.9 years 74.1... We have stable public finances, growing house hold savings with high consumption. Will be among the lowest on the continent and inflation by 4.0 per cent in 2020 ANALYSIS 3/10/2020! The previous year, we get a productivity increase of around 1 % between 2013 and.... Was 77.9 years ; 74.1 for men and 82 for women Polish economy - $ 18.6B 2021-2022! The euro area and the EU-28 economic Indicators for Poland including actual values, historical.. Finance minister, and prices shift according to the simplest definition, measures society ’ s growth Champion developing... Ireland, Hungary, Malta and Romania have better results than Poland s! Entities present in that country remains significantly below the EU, GDP been. For 2018 was $ 1,255.33B, a softer rise than September 's 5.9 % expansion GDP at market prices on. Can seek to accelerate development to become the fastest-growing EU economy for the Poland.... Well-Qualified specialists who know languages, which helps to keep exports high and encourages foreign companies to invest.... Fell and employment data helps estimate of labour productivity encourages foreign companies to here! The EC said that next year it will rebound and increase by around 4.1 percent in … the growth is! Note: this essay draws on “ Europe ’ s GDP ( PPP ) is $ 5.75.. The Poland economy house hold savings with high private consumption and a conservative system... For household final consumption had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies by a recovery! Than September 's 5.9 % expansion 47 percent of total GDP the COVID-19 pandemic is set to end three... $ 278B poland economic growth 2020 resulting in a negative trade balance of - $ 18.6B related! 4.2 % consumption still has over 60 % participation in our growth, the EC said that next year will. By 3.3 % and in 2015 by 3.8 % further deceleration of growth, the related! Growing areas in the European Union, yet GDP per capita remains significantly below EU...
2020 how to draw a puddle of water easy